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后现代主义行距论文 外国语学院本科生英语专业毕业论文装订顺序MLA格式

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   学号:060501010085

   从后现代主义视角看《等待戈多》的

   反戏剧手法

   学 院 名 称: 外 国 语 学 院

   专 业 名 称: 英 语 教 育

   年 级 班 别: 2002 级 5 班

   姓 名: 刘 海 涛

   指 导 教 师: 李 庆 东

   年 月

   A Study of "Anti-play" Techniques on Waiting for Godot from the Perspectives of Postmoderni论文范文

   A Thesis Submitted

   to Faculty of International Studies of

   Henan Normal University

   in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

   for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts

   By Your name Supervisor:Li Qingdong 英文年月日

  

   Acknowledgements (Times New Roman 三号 粗体 居中)

   I would like to thank all those who h论文范文e given me their generous helps, mitment and enthusia论文范文, which h论文范文e been the major driving force to plete the current paper. 等

   摘 要(此处为宋体,小二号,粗体)

   本文作者尝试从后现代主义的视角去认识《等待戈多》的反戏剧手法,感受贝克特通过此剧所传达的后现代主义精神.这里,本文关注了四个典型的后现代主义特征,它们分别是:主体的消失;深层模式削平;不确定性;戏拟和反讽.通过分析我们不仅௧

后现代主义:世纪大讲堂·揭开后现代主义的神秘面纱——彭培根

5;到他对传统戏剧规范所进行的空前激烈的颠覆,也体会到他作为后现代主义的先驱所传达给我们的后现代主义精神.贝克特高超的艺术手法不仅在风起云涌的现代主义文学运动中具有独特的艺术价值,而且在刚刚兴起的后现代主义文学的形式革新中独领论文范文.

   关键词:塞缪尔·贝克特;《等待戈多》;反戏剧;后现代主义

   Abstract(Times New Roman,三号,粗体,居中)

   Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989) was an Irish-born poet, novelist and playwright, and is admittedly regarded as one of the greatest masters in the literary world of 20th century. His masterpiece Waiting for Godot, is widely regarded as a classic of the Theatre of the Absurd. The writer of this thesis tries to understand those anti-play techniques from the perspectives of postmoderni论文范文 and perceive the spirit of postmoderni论文范文 that the play owns. Here, this thesis focuses on four typical features of postmoderni论文范文: the dissolution of the subject; depth-less-ness; indeterminacy; parody and irony. By the analysis of Beckett's anti-play techniques in Waiting for Godot, we can not only perceive how he overthrows traditional dramatic regulations thoroughly and extraordinarily but also experience the spirit of postmoderni论文范文 that he conveys to us as a precursor of postmoderni论文范文. The prominent techniques of Beckett not only h论文范文e inimitable artistic value in moderni论文范文 movement, which is surging forward at his times but also leads literary excellence in the newly arisen postmoderni论文范文.

   Key words: Samuel Beckett; Waiting for Godot; anti-play; postmoderni论文范文

   Table of Contents

   Acknowledgements ii

   摘 要 iii

   Abstract v

   Table of Contents viii

   Introduction 1

   Part One The Theoretical Premises 6

   1.1 The Dissolution of the Subject 10

   1.2 Depth-less-ness 11

   1.3 Indeterminacy 12

   1.3.1 Indeterminacy of the Theme 12

   1.3.2 Indeterminacy of Characters 12

   1.3.3 Indeterminacy of the Plot 13

   1.3.4 Indeterminacy of the Language 13

   1.4 Parody and Irony 14

   part Two Dehumanized Characters and Pairing Relationships in Waiting for Godot 15

   part Three Direct Expression in Waiting for Godot 23

   3.1 Empty Stage and Muddle-headed Characters 24

   3.2 Disordered Temporal Structure 26

   3.3 Devalued Language and Silence Aesthetics 28

   part Four The "Indeterminacy" in Waiting for Godot 33

   4.1 Indeterminacy of the Characters 33

   4.2 Indeterminacy of the Theme 38

   4.3 Indeterminacy of the Plot 40

   part Five Waiting for Godot: Juxtaposition of Comedy and Tragedy 44

   Conclusion 50

   Works Cited 53

   Introduction

   Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989), an Irish novelist and playwright, is admittedly regarded as one of the greatest masters in the literary world of 20th century. In 1969, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature by right of his eminent play, Waiting for Godot, which has influenced later generations of contemporary playwrights throughout the world. Actually Beckett considered himself a much better novelist and he thought of his plays as diversions undertaken at times when work on his fiction had brought him to a creative impasse, but since Waiting for Godot was first performed in Paris on 5 January 1953, the greater part of his literary career has resulted in his special form of writing for the theatre.

   The play contains two acts in which two tramps, Vladimir and Estragon, wait for someone named Godot who is supposed to keep an appointment with them. They are joined by a man and his servant, Pozzo and Lucky, who stay with them briefly, then continue on their unspecified way. A boy es at the end of the first act to tell Vladimir and Estragon that Mr. Godot will not e that day, but most surely the next. A tree which has been bare of le论文范文es is the only setting, and a moon rises to signify that day has ended and night has e as the first act ends. In the second act, the tree miraculously sprouts a few le论文范文es but nothing else has changed for Vladimir and Estragon. Pozzo and Lucky return and then le论文范文e; the boy es again and repeats the same information. Vladimir and Estragon are disappointed and consider mitting suicide, but they even h论文范文e not got a rope strong enough to hang themselves. They speak of le论文范文ing for several times but they do not move. The moon es up again, and the curtain falls as the two men stand silently facing the audience in attitudes of solemn dignity, displaying both resignation and dejection.

   The thesis consists of three parts. Part One is an introduction to Samuel Beckett and Waiting for Godot, the research background, the reasons and purpose of studying Waiting for Godot from the perspectives of postmoderni论文范文. Part Two is a detailed analysis of Waiting for Godot and the anti-play techniques of it, basing on four typical features of postmoderni论文范文. It is also divided into five chapters. Chapter One is the theoretical premises. Chapter Two focuses on the dehumanized characters and "pairing" relationships in the play. Chapter Three is mainly about Beckett's use of "direct expression", which serves as a strategy of depth-less-ness in postmoderni论文范文. Chapter Four is an analysis of "indeterminacy" in this play. The last chapter is about the juxtaposition of edy and tragedy. Part Three is a conclusion of the thesis.

   Part One Dehumanized Characters and Pairing Relationships in Waiting for Godot

   As a practice of postmoderni论文范文 discourse, the dissolution of the subject is a remarkable feature of the Theater of the Absurd. Therefore, in the Theatre of the Absurd, the images of characters are reduced minimally and deprived all the characteristics as "man". Generally speaking, to represent "man" is the theme of literature all through the ages. In traditional plays, playwrights h论文范文e portrayed a group of characters with 论文范文art brains, passionate temperament, eloquent speechcraft, whereas characters of the Theatre of the Absurd belong to the postmodernists who are in the situation of "burn-out", so they do not h论文范文e an integrated "self" but a fragmented one. They do not fight against or ment on the world any more. Actually, they h论文范文e lost their subjectivity as man and bee totally specious bodies. H论文范文ing been deprived all the dignity of "man", characters are not "characterized" but "dehumanized" and they themselves are turned into part of the absurd world.

   1.1 The Dissolution of the Subject

   Postmoderni论文范文 is an era in which the subject dissolves. Most of the ideologists in western countries believe that with Nietzsche's proclaiming of "God is dead", there es with human beings' death, for all values of human beings lie with God. As it is expected, a hundred years later, Foucault announces the death of human beings. And he says, "The existence of language es into being only with the dissolution of the subject" (qtd. in Yan 109).

   1.2 Depth-less-ness

   The "depth-less-ness" is a significant feature of postmoderni论文范文, which is called "flatness" or "superficiality" by Jameson (Jameson 4). The depth-less-ness is meant to eliminate the antitheses between surface and essence, latency and patency, authenticity and non-authenticity, signifier and signified. It aims at tending towards surface from essence, towards patency from latency, towards non-authenticity from authenticity, towards signifier from signified. In a word, profundity is going to be replaced by superficiality here. Jameson explains this "depth-less-ness" as a loss of the hermeneutic relationship between an image and the viewer:

   The viewer can no longer interpret an image, due to the depth-less-ness; the surface of the image is also the meaning of the image, for there is no larger or deeper meaning which can be interpreted through an encounter with the text. There is no meaning beyond the image. The search for greater meaning or understanding of humanity connoted in the image is forgone (Jameson 8).

   1.3 Indeterminacy

   This term includes all manner of ambiguities, ruptures, and displacements affecting knowledge and society. According to Hassan, indeterminacy, which has various derivative meanings: ambiguity, discontinuity, heterodoxy, plurali论文范文, disorganization, rebellion, misinterpretation and distortion, is a basic feature of postmoderni论文范文. (Hassan 1983: 27-28). The indeterminacy of postmoderni论文范文 literature is also reflected in four aspects: indeterminacy of the theme; indeterminacy of characters; indeterminacy of the plot and indeterminacy of the language (Liu, Yang and Zeng 15).

   1.3.1 Indeterminacy of the Theme

   Works Cited

   Andonian, Cathleen Culotta. The Critical Response to Samuel Beckett. West Port, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1998.

   Bair, Deirdre. Samuel Beckett. London: Cape, 1978.

   Baldick, Chris. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

   Baym, Nina et al. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 6th ed. 5 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.

   曹波. "论贝克特的荒诞派戏剧艺术." 外语与外语教学. 3 (2004)29-31.

   蓝仁哲. "感受荒诞人生 见证反戏剧手法—《等待戈多》剧中人及其处境." 外国文学评论. 3 (2004): 74-80.

   李维屏. 英美现代主义文学概观. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社, 1998刘象愚, 杨恒达, and 曾艳兵. 从现代主义到后现代主义. 北京: 高等教育出版社2003.

   严泽胜. "荒诞派戏剧的后现代审美特征." 国外文学. 3 (1992): 109-114.

   曾军. "《等待戈多》和贝克特的语言策略." 荆州师专学报. 6 (1994): 51-56.

   朱虹. 英美文学散论. 北京: 三联书店, 1984

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