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系统浮水印论文 买博士论文资讯硕,博士论文摘要

导读:本文是一篇关于系统浮水印论文范文,可作为相关选题参考,和写作参考文献。

资讯硕,博士论文摘 要-优等

   第 1 篇

   学号:R86526010

   论文名称:助理型软体资讯撷取技术:树状结构HTML文件样板之自动产生法

   Automatic Generation of Tree-Structured Templates for Information

   Extraction from HTML Documents

   研究生:庄 水 龙 Shui-lung Chuang

   指导教授:许 永 真 Jane Yung-jen Hsu

   校院:国立台湾大学

   系所:资讯工程学研究所

   学位:硕士

   学年度:八十八

   语文:英文

   页数:108

   关键字:

   样板式资讯撷取 template-based information extraction

   样板自动产生法 template generation

   文法推论 grammatical inference

   序列对齐 sequence alignment

   [提要]

   网际网路的快速成长已经改变了人们处理日常生活资讯的方法及习惯.有愈来愈丰富的资料是以HTML文件的格式呈现在Web上,为了使这些大量的线上资料能够被有效地利用,各式各样的资讯撷取系统被发展出来.然而面对着日益庞大的资料量以及应用程式需求,过去以人工分析来手动建构所需之资讯撷取系统已无法满足现阶段大量的需求,因而许多的研究人员正极力发展各种可行的方法来自动建构所需之资讯撷取系统.

   我们采取的资讯撷取方法是样板式资讯撷取法(Template-based Information Extraction).一份HTML文件可以根据它的标签而被表达成一棵文件树,以期能表达出该文件的结构资讯.而相似的文件通常具有相同的文件结构,因此我们利用一个树状结构样板来表达这个相同的文件结构特性.透过一个树状配对法,我们可以决定样板和文件之间的对应关系,进而从文件中撷取出所要的资讯.

   撰写所需的树状结构样板需要相当的训练和经验,而且样板设计者还需要深入去分析所要处理的资讯源之文件结构为何.这样的工作不仅很无趣,而且费时,更糟糕的是所得到的样板很可能容易出错,为了减少整个资讯撷取系统发展上的困难,本论文提出了一个自动化样板产生法,使用者只需要提供少数几篇相关文件及相对应之撷取目标,透过我们所提出来的方法,便可以自动地产生一个适当的样板.

   我们将所发展出来的方法实际地应用在几个知名的网路搜寻引擎及线上新闻网站上.实验结果显示了我们所提出的方法确实可以很有效且快速地产生所需要的样板,也更加确认了这套方法的可行性及实用性.

   结合了样板式资讯撷取法和自动样板产生法,我们使得发展一个资讯撷取程序变成了只要提供几篇同类的文件和相关的撷取资讯.很明显地,这大大地减少了整个资讯撷取系统开发过程所需要的时间和精神.

   The rapid growth of the World Wide Web has changed the way in which people exchange and share information. As the Inter serves as an important source of information, answers to questions are often scattered over a multitude of Web pages. To make huge amounts of on-line documents 论文范文ailable and manageable, the various information extraction systems are unexpendable. However, manually constructing such information extraction systems is a laborious task. Automatic methods h论文范文e the potential to help this development process.

   This thesis follows a structure-based approach to extracting target information from HTML documents. Each document can be tran论文范文ormed into a unique ``document tree,'' which captures the structural properties defined by its HTML tags. On the other hand, a class of documents can be characterized as sharing a mon tree-structured template. Through an approximate tree matching approach, the mapping between a document tree and a template tree can be established. According to the matching result, the target information can be determined and extracted.

   Writing the required tree-structured templates manually is tedious and error-prone. To alleviate this engineering bottleneck, this thesis seeks to automate the process of constructing an appropriate template for a set of similar Web pages. With the idea from grammatical inference, we h论文范文e developed an algorithm to automatically generate a template from a set of annotated training Web pages.

   We h论文范文e applied the proposed generation approach on several search engines and on-line news sources. The experimental results show that our method can effectively and efficiently generate appropriate templates for the test sites with a handful of training sample pages.

   As the result of bining the structure-based information extraction approach and the automatic template generation method, we do make developing an information extraction process by providing a set of training pages, exceedingly better than constructing it manually.

   第 2 篇

   学 号:R86526038

   论文名称:群自型监控核心於21st 智慧型大楼的应用

   Holonic SCADA for 21st Century Intelligent Buildings

   研 究 生: 石登瑞 (Shih Teng-Jei)

   指导教授: 傅立成 ( Fu Li-Chen)

   校 院:国立台湾大学

   系 所:资讯工程研究所

   学 位: 硕士

   学 年 度:87学年度

   语 文: 英文

   页 数: 76页

   关 键 字:大楼自动化协定 Building Automation Protocol,

   智慧型大楼Intelligent Building System, 群自体Holon,

   群自体丛聚Holarchy, 群自型监控 HSCADA,

   主控者需求导向控制核心SROCK, 群自软体Software Holon,

   群自韧体Firmware Holon, 巨集需求 Macro Request

   [提要]

   智慧型大楼或家庭改变了人类的生活方式及形态, 它让人们的生活更舒适, 更便利, 也更安全. 而由於个人电脑和通讯网路的普及再加以各种家庭和大楼自动化协定的日驱成熟, 智慧型大楼(家庭)系统已由过去的遥不可及到今天的举日可待, 未来这套系统的普遍性是无庸至疑的. 因此如何让这套系统的建构更为便捷, 将会是它能否更快为人接受的关键之一. 因此我们提出一个系统化建构智慧型大楼系统的方法和模型, 以及一个整合这个系统的控制核心. 这使得未来在建构智慧型大楼或家庭系统时, 不会耗废太多系统建构及整合的时间并使智慧型大楼系统更具弹性.

   一个智慧型大楼(家庭)系统通常会包含下列几个子系统, 1). 安全系统 2). 警报系统 3). 存取控制系统 4). 声光影像系统 5). 电梯系统 6). 冷冻空调系统 7). 电力管理系统 8). 灯光照明系统. 在过去, 这些系统间的连系皆需透过复杂而昂贵的布线才能完成, 直到最近, 一些大楼自动化标准将大楼系统导向分散且开放的架构, 布线方式也渐渐采用单线连接的方式, 甚至是应用现有的电力线来做连系. 在这样的架构下, 我们提出了一套将各周边设备分群的方法, 并形成一个个的基本功能, 这些基本功能又是组成智慧型大楼系统的单元, 由这些单元的合作即可形成一个个的智慧型大楼子系统. 由於这种分群和合作的特性, 再加上各别单元的自主性, 一个群自型的监控即可用於智慧型大楼系统的建构和设计上. 在群自型系统中, 一个群自体代表一个具有合作与独立运作特性的单元, 群自型监控包含了两种类别的群自体, 分别为位於软体层的群自软体和韧体层的群自韧体, 还有一个整合这些群自体的使用者需求导向控制核心, 在智慧型大楼系统中, 各子系统可用群自软体来表现, 而基本功能和硬体控制则可用群自韧体来表现, 在各群自体中又可各依所需来加入智慧, 一群智慧的群自体正可表现智慧型大楼的各种行为模式.

   在群自型监控中, 使用者需求导向控制核心是整合单元, 它所负责的工作有1). 群自体整合, 2). 使用者需求编辑, 3). 使用者需求处理4). 错误回复等, 群自体的整合能力, 使得控制核心所控制的系统拥有高度弹性, 扩张性和网际网路的应用性, 而使用者需求编辑除了可以自动攫取智慧型大楼系统的可用控制指令外, 更可依系统使用对象的不同提供属於各自的可用巨集需求, 让大楼中各个使用者可更便利的控制和使用大楼中的各项服务. 最後, 当智慧型大楼系统中有设备的损坏, 这个控制核心可透过错误回复来达到系统的可靠性, 不会因系统中某项设备的损坏而影响整体的运作.

   The Intelligent Building/Home System (IBS) enhances the human life style. It makes our life more fortable, efficient, and safety. With increasing of puter, munication work, and building automation protocol, the IBS has been possible to implement in every building soon. The critical problem to the IBS that can be a popular one is that how to construct the IBS quickly and efficiently. So we proposed a systematical method and model to construct an IBS and a control kernel to integrate it. After that, the IBS will be easy to construct and it will be a flexible and scalable system.

   An IBS always includes the following ponents, 1). security system, 2). alarm system, 3). access control system, 4). audio/video system 5). lift system, 6). HVAC system, 7). power management system, 8). lighting system. In the past, these ponents were all standalone system and had to municate through a plex wire technique with high cost until recently. The new building automation protocol adopts the open and distributed architecture with an uni-field bus that even the power line can be used as the munication field bus. Under this structure, we group the field devices to several basic utilities unit that organize the ponents in IBS through cooperation among these basic utilities. According to these features of IBS, a holonic SCADA (HSCADA) can be applied to it. In HSCADA, a holon represents an autonomy and cooperation building block. There two types of holon, namely, software holon and firmware holon which are separated into the software layer and firmware layer and an integrated control kernel, namely supervisory request oriented control kernel (SROCK). In IBS, each ponent can be posed by software holon meanwhile the basic utilities and hardware device control can be posed by firmware holon. Each holon can implement the needed intelligence into itself. A group of holons can handle all beh论文范文iors in the IBS.

   In HSCADA, the SROCK is an integrated control unit which supports the capabilities as follows. 1). holon integration, 2). user request editor, 3). user request process, 4). error recovery. The first one increases the flexibility, scalability of systems that controlled by SROCK whereas applied in Inter. The second one supports a user-friendly control interface between IBS and occupancy such as macro request, and control mand automatically retrieving. These allow the occupancy using the service more efficiently. Finally, when the devices in IBS break down, the SROCK can do error recovery that makes it a reliable system. The error can't break down and effects the system.

   第 3 篇

   学 号:863928

   论文名称:网际网路数位影像浮水印应用之研究

   On the Study of Watermarking Application in WWW— Modeling,

   Performance Analysis, and Applications of Digital Image Watermarking

   Systems

   研 究 生:陈佩君 Pei-Chun Chen

   指导教授:许论文范文 Wen-Hsing Hsu

   陈永盛 Yung-Sheng Chen

   校 院:国立清华大学电机资讯学院

   系 所:电机工程学系硕士班

   学 位:硕士

   学 年 度:87

   语 言:英文(附中文摘 要)

   页 数:109

   关 键 字:数位浮水印 watermark

   资料隐藏 data hiding

   藏档加密法 stegonagraphy

   人类视知觉系统 Human Visual System (HVS)

   网际网路影像资料库 Inter Image Library (IIL)

   【提要】

   随着网际网路越来越普及,网路上的数位媒体(影像,声音等)的智慧财产权越来越受到注重.数位浮水印技术(digital watermarking technique)能够将资料隐藏於影像或声音中,隐藏的资料能明确的指出创作者或使用者.因此,数位浮水印数能够有效的保护智慧财产权.据此,我们发展出一个网际网路影像资料库(Inter Image Library,简称IIL).IIL,我们从理论分析数位浮水印方法着手,继之提出新的适应人类视知觉系统(Human Visual System,HVS)的数位浮水印方法.

   近年来很多研究者探讨加浮水印於影像上的方法,然而较少的研究探讨理论分析浮水印系统的方法.在本论文,我们利用数位通讯系统来解释浮水印系统.有三个评断浮水印系统的重要参数:讯息量,不可见度,强韧度.我们利用数位通讯理论来阐述这三者依存关系.在分析後,我们提出两个适应人类视知觉系统的浮水印方法,而错误更正码及展频技巧也被使用来降低错误率.

   考虑原图作为传输通道,影像加浮水印的容量即是影像通道容量,不可见度即是浮水印讯息与影像处理後杂讯(和/或原图)比值,浮水印侦测的错误率显示了此浮水印系统的强韧度.我们用两个方法来分析:通道容量分析及浮水印侦测错误分析.第一种方法告诉我们:当系统杂讯忍受度不变时,不让浮水印较明显可见则无法增加影像浮水印容量﹔当浮水印较明显可见则系统较强韧.由第二种分析方法,我们知道除了增加浮水印强度使之更明显,错误更正码及展频技巧亦可降低浮水印侦测的错误率.

   不像一般的通道特性已知或可预测的通讯通道,影像通道较难以定义且可被转换到不同的域,例如数位余弦转换域,小波转换域等.影像在不同域会有不同的浮水印容量.在本论文,我们架构浮水印系统在最常见的两种域中:空间域及数位余弦转换域.利用人类视知觉系统特性,我们建立两个适应性浮水印系统:值基於空间域人类视知觉系统之直接数列展频浮水印系统(DSSS watermarking system based on HVS in spatial domain)及值基於数位余弦转换域人类视知觉系统之快速跳频展频浮水印系统(FHSS watermarking system based on HVS in DCT domain).Inter Image Library,简称IIL)被提出.此系统主要的观念是利用加入影像的浮水印隐藏创作者,网际网路影像资料库及消费者的资料.创作者的浮水印会永久的加在影像上.一个可疑的影像可被检测是否影像里的消费者浮水印与持有者相符.被检测出来的网际网路影像资料库资料可有其他附加价值,例如它可以带领消费者回到网际网路影像资料库的网址做其他交易或看广告.

   As the Inter bees more and more populous, people concern more about the copyright protection issue for digital data such as images and audio. Digital watermarking technique can hide data in images or audio to indicate the data owner or recipient. Therefore, it can protect the copyright. Motivated by copyright protection in the Inter, we propose an Inter Image Library (IIL) using watermarks to protect the copyright. With this watermarking application– IIL in mind, we analyze and propose new watermark systems to meet this application.

   A lot of researchers discussed how to embed a watermark into image in recent years. However, few researches analyzed the watermark techniques in a theoretical point of view. In this thesis, we first interpret the watermarking problem as a digital munication problem. There are three main criteria concerning the performance of a watermarking technique– capacity, imperceptibility, and robustness. We then show the trade-offs between these three criteria adopting concepts from the digital munication theory. After the analysis has been established, two watermarking schemes adaptive to Human Visual System are proposed. In addition, error correction coding and spread spectrum munication technique are used to lower the watermark detection error.

   Consider the original image as the tran论文范文ission channels, capacity is interpreted as the channel capacity of the image. Imperceptibility of the watermark is the signal to noise ratio (SNR) with watermark as the signal and image processing errors or/and original image as noise. Probability of watermark detection error demonstrates the robustness of the watermark technique. We analyze watermark systems by two approaches: channel capacity analysis and probability of watermark detection error analysis. The first analysis shows that we cannot increase the capacity without making the watermark obtrusive in viewing with the noise tolerance of the watermark system controlled. The watermark system is more robust when the watermark signal power rises with the capacity of the system controlled. In the second analysis, we know that in addition to stronger watermark power, we can use error correction codes and spread spectrum munication technique to lower the watermark detection error.

   Unlike the general digital munication system, where the channel characteristics is known or estimated, an image channel is hard to define because it can be tran论文范文ormed to many different domains, such as DCT domain, W论文范文elet-Tran论文范文orm domain, etc. Therefore, an image channel has different capacity and probability of detection error respect to different representations. In this thesis, we develop our system on two most monly used domains, spatial and DCT domain. By exploiting the HVS characteristics, we develop two adaptive watermarking systems: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) watermarking system based on Human Visual System (HVS) in spatial domain and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum watermarking system based on Human Visual System (HVS) in DCT domain. HVS is adopted to determine the watermark power constraint. Capacities of an image are then puted. Locations with larger capacity values are selected to embed the watermark. Watermark is derived from message been error correction coded and weighted adaptive to HVS values.

   After the analysis on watermarking systems and proposition of new watermarking techniques h论文范文e been performed, a digital inter image library in the World Wide Web, call Inter Image Library (IIL), is presented as a watermark application for copyright protection in the Inter. The central concept in this system is to use watermarks embedded in the image to hide the creator, IIL, and the consumer information. The creator watermark stays permanently in the image. A suspected image is inspected if a rightful consumer watermark matches with the consumer personal information. The retrieved IIL watermark has add-on values such as leading consumer back to the IIL WWW site for further transaction or advertisements.

   第 4 篇

   论文名称:论文范文与音乐资料的内涵式查询

   Content-Based Video and Music Data Retrieval

   研 究 生:刘志俊 Chih-Chin Liu

   指导教授:陈良弼 L. P. Chen

   校 院:国立清华大学

   系 所:资讯工程研究所

   学 位:博士

   学 年 度:87

   语 文:英文

   [提要]

   在本篇论文中,我们探讨关於论文范文与音乐资料的内涵式查询的一些重要问题.首先,我们描述用以表示影像,论文范文与音乐的内涵的各种特徵值.我们以物件模型为基础,提出一个多媒体资料架构以及一个物件层时空间模型来表示媒体物件间的时空间关系.在此多媒体资料架构中我们提出三种新的合成关系.此外我们也提出一种多媒体查询语言与两种查询介面让使用者来下达多媒体内涵式查询.

   第二,由於许多多媒体内涵式查询问题可以转化为高维特徵值空间的最近邻居搜寻问题,因此我们必须发展一种有效率的最近邻居搜寻演算法.我们所提出的方法是在每一维建立一个索引.使用者在查询时给定一个查询样本与相似度,此查询样本将被转换为高维特徵值空间中的一个点.我们藉由索引来取出每一维的可能答案,在合并这些可能答案後移去超过相似度的点便可得到最终答案.

   第三,我们基於图像式索引的观念提出一种论文范文查询模型.影像资料库的二维字串表示法被延伸成论文范文资料库的三维字串表示法.三维字串表示法可以用以表示论文范文资料与论文范文查询中的符号物件之时空间关系.论文范文查讯处理因此被转换为三维字串比对问题.我们进一步设计一种称为三维串列的资料结构以及相关的演算法来加速三维字串的比对.

   最後,我们提出一种音乐资料的内涵式查询方法.在此方法中,各种主题特徵字串,如旋律字串,节奏字串与和弦字串可以由音乐资料中抽取出作为表示其内涵的特徵值.音乐查讯处理因此被转换为主题特徵字串比对问题.我们提出一种考虑音乐相似性的字串比对法.

  

   In this dissertation, we discuss important issues in content-based video and music data retrieval. First, we describe features used to model the content of image, video and music data. Based on the object model, we propose a multimedia framework and an object-level spatial/temporal model to represent the spatial/temporal relationships between media objects.

   Three new types of aggregation relationships posed of the position, temporal, and spatial relationships are considered in the framework. To support content-based data retrieval, we propose a multimedia query language and two kinds of query interfaces for users to specify content-based queries.

   Second, since many content-based multimedia data retrieval problems can be tran论文范文ormed into the near neighbor searching problem in a multidimensional feature space, an efficient near neighbor searching algorithm is needed when developing a multimedia database system. We propose an approach to efficiently solve the near neighbor searching problem. In this approach, along each dimension an index is constructed according to the values of the feature points of the multimedia objects. A user can pose a content-based query by specifying a multimedia query example and a similarity threshold. The specified query example will be tran论文范文ormed into a query point in the multi-dimensional feature space.

   The possible result points in each dimension are then retrieved by searching the value of the query point in the corresponding dimension. The sets of the possible result points are merged one by one by removing the points which are not within the query radius. The result points and their distances from the query point form the answer of the query.

   Third, we propose a video query model based on the content of video and iconic indexing. The notion of two-dimensional strings is extended to three-dimensional strings (3D-Strings) for representing the spatial and temporal relationships among the symbols in both a video and a video query. The problem of video query processing is then tran论文范文ormed into a problem of three-dimensional pattern matching. To efficiently match the 3D-Strings, a data structure called 3D-List and its related algorithms are proposed. In this approach, the symbols of a video in the video database are retrieved from the video index and organized as a 3D-List according to the 3D-String of the video query. The related algorithms are then applied on the 3D-List to determine whether this video is an answer to the video query.

   Fourth, we propose an approach for content-based music data retrieval. In this approach, thematic feature strings, such as melody strings, rhythm strings, and chord strings are extracted from the original music objects and treated as the meta data to represent their contents. The problem of content-based music data retrieval is then tran论文范文ormed into the string matching problem. A new approximate string matching algorithm is proposed

   for content-based music data retrieval.

   资讯硕,博士论文摘 要-论文范文

   第 1 篇

   学号: 686410025

   论文名称: 行动网路之群播设计

   Multicast Support for Mobile Networks

   研究生: 王凯民 Kai-Min Wang

   指导教授: 林俊宏 Chunhung Richard Lin

   校院: 国立中正大学工学院

   系所: 资讯工程研究所

   学位: 硕士

   学年度: 八十七

   语文: 中文

   页数: 72

   关键字:

   群播代理人 Multicast Home Agents

   服务范围 Service Range

   远端订阅 Remote Subscription

   双向转传 Bi-directional Tunneling

   [提要]

   在本篇论文中,我们提出一个崭新的通讯协定- RBMoM (Range-Based Mobile Multicast)以支援行动网际网路的群播服务.(Mobile Multicast Routing Protocol)的主要优点,但却没有它们的缺点.目前的两个行动群播协定标准,分别是远端订阅(Remote Subscription)及双向转传(Bi-directional Tunneling).2 篇

   学号: 78664007

   论文名称:小波为基础的分码多工系统及其性能分析

   W论文范文elet Based CDMA and Its Performance Analysis

   研究生: 吕政修 J. S. LEU

   指导教授: 陈晓华博士 H. H. CHEN

   校院: 国立中兴大学

   系所: 电机工程学系

   学位: 硕士

   学年度: 八十七学年度

   语文: 中文

   页数: 384

   关键字: 小波包封,分码多工,多路径衰减,

   统计相关分布摺积法,耙式接收机

   w论文范文elet packet,CDMA,multipath fading,

   statistical correlation distribution convolution (SCDC),RAKE receiver

   [提要]

   本论文主要在探讨小波(w论文范文elet)函数应用於多用户通讯系统的可行性.

   由母小波函数与子小波函数(daughter w论文范文e

浮水印:杜比AC-3 DTS测试 (浮水印)

let)组成的正交基(orthogonal basis)中的每个函数相互正交,小波函数的正交特性已成功的应用於多用户通讯系统中.在本论文中我们首先以子小波作为用户码组传送二元讯号,并搜寻在非同步情形下适用於多用户系统的码组.接着我们将适当组合数个子小波函数构成固定长度的w论文范文elet packet based CDMA code,并搜寻出系统用户之间相关性较小的码组及适用於双资讯传输率系统的dual chip rate w论文范文elet packet based code作为用户码,并使用搜寻得到的码组於多路径衰减通道中传递讯号,利用statistic correlation distribution convolution(SCDC)方法分析系统於多路径衰减通道环境的性能,在分析系统性能时,在接收端采用传统接收机,Equal Gain Combining RAKE及Maximal Ratio Combining RAKE receiver三种类型的接收机,分析码组在各种模式下的系统性能.我们也将比较w论文范文elet packet based CDMA code与Gold code,m-sequence性能的差异.

   小波函数具有良好的频率—时间双重解析度,如果系统能组合适当的码组作为用户码,当讯号经过多路径衰减通道後,在接收端处对讯号作判决及提高系统性能是很有帮助的.我们将在本实验中证明:选用由较多层数所组成的节点w论文范文elet packet based CDMA code应用於多路径衰减通道中,具有较佳的frequency diversity性质,该码组用於多重路径通道中具有抗频率选择性衰减的特性.因此我们可以根据所测得的通道参数及其特性,组合适当节点的码组,使该码组讯号能在时域及频域都能有良好的正交性质,克服通道所引起的多重路径干扰,进而提高系统性能.

   另外,实验结果也显示:在码长度相同的四用户及八用户系统下,Haar w论文范文elet packet based CDMA code之系统误码率比Gold code低,而且w论文范文elet packet based CDMA code适合使用於dual chip rate CDMA system作为用户码.当w论文范文elet packet code使用於多路径衰减通道,对克服频率选择性衰减效应是很有用的.小波函数不同於一般传统的Gold code,m-sequence等二元讯号所组成的展频码,小波函数是多值函数(multi-value).小波函数所组成的码组频宽较小,比二元讯号所组成的展频码有较高的频谱效益.

   In this thesis, the feasibility of w论文范文elet-based CDMA multiuser munication system is studied. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, as an initial effort to study the w论文范文elet-based CDMA system, selection of w论文范文elet functions for w论文范文elet-based CDMA systems is carried out. In the selection process, we search the codes based only on their low cross-correlation levels (LCCLs). The found CDMA code sets are to be used in single chip rate CDMA systems. Chapter 3 is concentrated on study of w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA systems for both single and dual chip rates systems. Suitable w论文范文elet-packet functions are searched based on their low LCCLs. In Chapters 4, a numerical method, the statistic correlation distribution convolution (SCDC) algorithm, is developed to explicitly study bit error rate of w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA systems under varying multipath fading environment. The performance of w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA system is pared with that of traditional CDMA systems using Gold codes and m-sequences. Two different types of RAKE receiver structures, equal gain bining RAKE and maximum ratio bining RAKE, are also considered for the w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA systems to mitigate multipath fading effects of mobile channels. Due to their two-fold resolution capability (time-frequency duel-resolution), the w论文范文elet-packet functions can outperform traditional CDMA codes, such as Gold codes or m-sequences, under multipath-impaired channels. The reason for that is own mainly to the frequency diversity capability inherent to the w论文范文elet-packet functions. The obtained results in Chapter 4 also show that Haar w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA systems with four/eight users perform better than those using Gold codes of the same length, and w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA codes are also suitable for dual chip rate systems. The another major advantage for using w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA codes is that they occupy much narrower bandwidth than that of the ordinary binary codes, such as Gold codes or m-sequences. Therefore, they can provide a higher bandwidth efficiency. However, unlike tradition binary CDMA codes (as Gold code, m-sequence), the w论文范文elet-packet based CDMA codes are multi-valued functions. Therefore, they require multi-level modulations in tran论文范文itters. Finally, the conclusion and remaining work are given in Chapter 5.

   第 3 篇

   学 号: R86526016

   论文名称: 球形全景影像编辑系统

   An Editing System of Constructing Panoramic Image Mosaics

   研 究 生: 论文范文坤 Jyh-Kuen Horng

   指导教授: 欧阳明 Ming Ouhyoung

   校 院: 国立台湾大学

   系 所: 资讯工程研究所

   学 位: 硕士

   学 年 度: 87学年度

   语 文: 英文

   页 数: 62

   关 键 字: 影像定位 image registration

   全景影像 panoramic image

   位移估测 motion estimation

   虚拟场景 virtual environment

   [摘 要]

   本篇论文提出根据一系列的影像来建造球形全景影像的技术.此方法是将每一张输入的影像关连至某一组转换矩阵,而不采用将所有的影像先行投影至某一共同曲面(例如柱状面)的传统作法.特别是当建造一个拥有完整视野的全景影像时,我们引入不含有平移运动的平面运动模型,也就是对每一张输入的影像,求出其对应的旋转矩阵(因不含平移运动)以及焦距的长度.为了快速地求得更精确的数值,我们也发展了另一个称为区域搜寻的方法,以修正偏差较大的估计值.由粗糙到精细的影像阶层式架构也被采用以弥补相邻影像间较大的位移,并同时增进系统的效率.

   对於一般使用的环景影像而言,在可允许的俯仰角上仍存在相当大的限制.我们可藉由接合不同纬度的多环来扩展垂直方向的视野,然而这引发了另一个问题:影像的旋转矩阵无法确定.在同时存在多个可能解的情况下,我们提出了另一个解决不确定性的方法:内插运算.透过对旋转矩阵的内插运算,可以得到另一个新的内插矩阵.这样的方法可以减少累积的误差,在合成的全景影像便不会产生导源於定位错误的鬼影现象.

   我们同时也实作了一个包含自动与手动接图功能的整合编辑环境,可视为一个可用来编辑场景的浏览系统.不同於一般的三维场景模型所使用的三角片或曲面,此整合编辑环境使用影像面来建造虚拟真实的人造场景.易於使用的设计及操控使得此编辑环境可作为前置处理之用,以提供够接近的估计值作为自动接图工具的初始设定.它支援各种型态的三维转换来控制所有的影像面,以得到一较佳的视觉效果.

   除此之外,我们也发展了一套环境映射图产生的方法.在输出的格式中,我们采用了传统经纬映射图的格式,故可使用一般的全景影像浏览器来观看,如Live Picture 浏览器.

   [Abstract]

   This paper proposes some techniques for constructing full view panoramic image mosaics from a sequence of images. Rather than explicitly projecting all of the images onto a mon surface (e.g., a cylinder), our mosaic representation associates a tran论文范文ormation matrix with each input image. In particular, to construct a full view panorama, we introduce a planar surface motion model without motion parallax that associates a pure rotational matrix and a focal length with each input image. A refinement approach to the estimated rotational representation called local search is developed to quickly fix an incorrect estimation. To pensate for large displacements between a pair of images, a coarse-to-fine hierarchical structure is used. This strategy also increases the system performance.

   To expand the vertical view or even create a spherical panorama without viewing restrictions, we can stitch multiple "image rings" which are located at different latitudes. However, concatenating consecutive rings involves another problem: relationship ambiguity. To solve this problem, we first build the 2D 论文范文ology of all images. Then according to the 论文范文ology graph established, a cross-pairwise registration is performed and a quanternion interpolation strategy is adopted to reduce accumulated error and minimize the blurring effects.

   An integrated editing environment (IEE) bining both manual and automatic editing function is implemented. The IEE is a designed as a scene construction tool with arbitrary browsing ability. Instead of using triangles or meshes to model a 3D virtual world, our IEE uses different primitives which are called image planes to establish a semi-realistic artificial scene. Friendly design and easy manipulation make the manual editing environment a useful pre-processing tool to provide a close initial guess to auto-registration function, which is critical to a local minimum optimization algorithm similar to what we used before.

   In addition, an environment map generation strategy is developed. We use the traditional longitude-latitude projection map as the output format. A specialized panoramic browser such as Live Picture viewer can be used to n论文范文igate the panorama.

   第 4 篇

   学 号: R85126008

   论文名称: 我国大学图书馆网站品质评估之研究

   研 究 生:翁慧娟 Huey Jiuan Ueng

   指导教授:谢宝煖 Pao-Nuan Hsieh

   校 院: 国立台湾大学

   系 所: 图书资讯学研究所

   学 位: 硕士

   学 年度: 88

   语 文: 中文

   页 数: 173页

   关键字:大学图书馆,网站品质评估指标,网站设计,网站内容,叠慧法

   University Library, Websites Quality Indicators,Web design

   ,Web content,Delphi Study

  

   [提要]

   受到WWW这股趋势的影响,各类型图书馆纷纷架设网站,以我国大学图书馆为例,目前已建置网站者高达95%,显示出图书馆利用网站作为延伸服务的方式已相当普遍.再者,监於网路资源评监的重要性与必要性愈显重要,图书馆应审慎规划设计图书馆网站,随时检视本身网站上存置的资讯,以确保网站上所呈现的资讯均能保持高度的品质;并协助使用者在网路上获取有用可信的资讯,培养其具有资讯批判能力.然综观国内外相关文献,目前尚无针对图书馆网站品质评估之完整研究,故值得深入探讨.

   本研究选定大学图书馆为研究对象.首先,蒐集相关文献整理出网站品质评估准则,并针对本研究所选定之国内外大学图书馆网站进行内容分析,以了解目前大学图书馆网站建置现况及服务内容.接续针对台大,政大,论文范文,中原,铭传五所大学图书馆馆员与读者进行网站品质评估准则及服务项目之意见调查.以叠慧法汇整馆员意见,问卷调查法了解读者意见,进一步比较两者之差异.最後研拟大学图书馆网站品质评估准则,供已建置网站的图书馆或尚未建置者之参考.

   研究结果发现,在网站内容分析方面,大学图书馆网站任务主要在支援教学与研究,服务对象涵盖教职员生及一般访客.因各馆网站定位不同而在内容的规划上有其独特性存在.国内外提供的服务项目相当多元,且均重视网站资讯的维护与更新.在网站品质评估准则方面,馆员与读者均相当重视网站资讯的新颖性,正确性及连结品质,如「网页定期更新,维持新颖」,「网页位址变动时应告知使用者更新的位址」,「提供馆外其他资源的连结」;均不重视网站视觉设计层面,如「网站设计充份运用声光音效,吸引使用者」,「列出到站人数统计数字」等.其次,发现馆员对於网站的规划与设计主要着重在图书馆的任务层面,读者则是从使用者利用资源的角度出发,显示两者对於网站品质评估的重要性认知存有差距.进一步利用因素分析法,萃取出「连结性」,「视觉设计」,「资源分类架构」等12项大学图书馆网站品质评估准则因素,供已建置网站的图书馆或尚未建置者之参考.

   在网站服务项目方面,馆员与读者均相当重视网站上所提供的馆藏查询及资讯检索服务,如「本馆馆藏查询(Webpac)」,「资料库检索」等;均不重视图书馆的简介资讯,如「图书馆成立经过或历史沿革」,「图书馆使命与任务」,「馆员新知园地」等.馆员对於图书馆网站的服务仍偏重在提供馆藏资讯,着重在管理层面的思考,忽略了结合校内外资源以及读者某些特定的资讯需求.读者则较重视馆藏最新动态的资讯,协助其解决问题的谘询管道等.此结果可供图书馆在建置或改善网站服务时参考.

   最後针对研究结果提出五项建议:一,确立图书馆网站任务,发挥网站服务功能;二,成立专职单位统筹规划图书馆网站相关事宜;三,研拟图书馆网站政策,以供遵循;四,进行网站评估,了解内外部顾客需求;五,利用图书馆网站,培养读者资讯素养能力.

   第 5 篇

   学 号: M8602441

   论文名称: 以实验为基础之区域网路错误行为知识库

   英文名称: An Experiment-based Knowledge Database of Local Area Network Fault Beh论文范文ior

   研 究 生: 余祯祥 Chen-Hsiang Yu

   指导教授: 刘安之 An-Chi Liu

   校 院: 逢甲大学

   系 所: 资讯工程研究所

   学 位: 硕士

   学 年 度: 87

   语 文: 中文

   页 数: 122

   关 键 字:网路错误诊断系统 Diagnosis System of Network Faults,

   多网域 Multi-Domain Network,

   警讯分析 Alarm Analysis,

   临界值 Threshold,

   事件 Event,

   警讯 Alarm,

   错误 Fault,

   警讯关系 Alarm Correlation

   [提要]

   管理网路的传统方法,依赖网路管理专家的经验累积并辅以简单的网管工具.这种方法得透过经验的传承较不系统化,而且网路所带给我们的便利性,也导致网路越来越庞大,对於这种传统管理网路的方法将是不切实际且无效率.因此我们希望透过一套有系统化且科学的方法,来管理网路上的所发生的错误.

   TCP(UDP)/IP的封包传递,占了绝大多数的网路传输量(约90%),因此我们针对其对应於网路七层架构中的传送层与网路层,加上连结层与实体层,探讨如何订定动态调整的临界值(Threshold),用来判断当网路有错误(Fault)发生时,事件(Event)是否由於条件(Threshold)的改变,而引发警讯(Alarm)的发生,并建立错误与警讯的因果关系知识库,以使得推理机制能依据此一知识库来推出网路错误的根源.

   首先,由於网路行为是非常复杂也无法完全掌握所有行为,为了能实际有效分析网路行为,我们先将环境简单化.因此我们实际架设一个网路实验环境以能符合现实网路环境(有两个路由器(Router),三个网域(Segment)及四部PC(Host)),做为我们分析的实验环境.

   并且我们使用简单网路管理协定(SNMPv1)来做为我们的标准,经由分析SNMP的管理物件(MO)并依据每个管理物件特性做分类,其中可以分成有关网路拓朴的资讯及网路统计资料的资讯.我们则筛选出有关於网路统计资料的管理物件,做为我们网路异常行为分析的依据,我们则称为事件(Event).

   在这些的事件中,经由实验的分析结果发现可以分成巨量式(Magnitude)触发式(Trigger) 及字串式(String)三种.巨量式为有关网路流量性质,例如平常网路卡的输入与输出封包流量.触发式为平常时的值是没有,除非网路有异常行为,例如封包遗失,封包无法传递等等.字串式网路状态性质的改变,例如网路卡目前为开启状态或是关闭状态.

   RMON可以视为网路上的元件,挂在网路区段(Segment)上,负责专门收集该区段的资讯.每一区段的RMON再将资讯交给管理者作分析,以判别该区段是否有异常的现象.这种以网路区段方式不仅减少集中式管理造成大量网路流量产生,引发另一网路异常现象的发生,而且可以增加网路错误诊断的准确率.

   因此,我们依据网路上常见的网路错误 (Broadcast Storm,Network Overload等等) 进行分析,并根据事件的特性及RMON的优点,来设计我们的实验及分析其结果.实验的设计则是先简单化再复杂化,使得我们能厘清网路错误发生时的所有现象,并以网路区段为基础订定事件临界值(Threshold),使得我们能由庞大而复杂的资讯里找出网路错误发生时的警讯,并且能得知是那一种警讯(What),由何处所产生(Where),何时所引发(When).

   有了错误与警讯的相对应关系之後,我们利用人工智慧的信任网路(Belief work)理论,以机率分布的统计方式求出每一个错误与警讯连线之间的信任值(Belief value).即将警讯依据错误发生时,分布於各个不同网路区段所发生的机率,订定出出现机率高者我们则将他定义为重要的(Significant)警讯,相反地,出现机率低者我们则将他定义为候选(Candidate)的警讯.错误与警讯的关系也就更明确,因此我们在将关系划分两阶层式(Bipartite)错误蔓延模组的因果关系图.

   最後,我们提供一种简单的描述语言,简单CSP (a?P) 规格描述语言,具有容易描述及容易理解的特点,来帮助网管专家建立错误行为知识(即两阶层式错误蔓延模组的因果关系图).并且以Case-based reasoning cycle的学习模组来完成知识内建,其具有Retrieve程序及Re-Use程序的特性,将初始知识与旧有之知识库的知识相关部份一一整合,成为新的可用知识.使得网路错误推理机制能根据错误行为知识库与当时网路错误发生时的警讯,依照Front-End及Back-End的推理方式诊断出错误的原因及根源所在.

   在自动化网路错误诊断系统(ACView系统)中,我们实作出警讯过滤器 (Alarm Filter),资料过滤器 (Data Filter),标准线的自动调整机制(Threshold Adjuest)及错误知识建立器 (Fault Knowledge Builder),能实际运作於网路环境,当错误发生时并能过滤出预期的警讯.

   本篇的主要贡献为能由实际的区域网路里,以一套有效率的错误行为分析模组,分析出网路错误与警讯的因果关系,并且有一临界值自动调整机制,随着正常网路流量的变动而改变,使得能正确地过滤出网路警讯的产生.并以简单的描述语言,运用Case-based Reasoning Cycle的学习模组完成知识内建,使得网路错误推理机制能根据这知识库来推理出网路错误的根源及原因所在.在未来延伸方面则是将实验环境扩大於实际的校园环境做进一步的错误与警讯分析,错误与警讯的因果关系考虑时间的因素,使得在做错误推理时能更准确,以及分析错误与错误之间是否有蔓延的关系.

   Most work management activities are performed by experts with the help of some work management tools. In particular, fault management activities are being more demanding and data intensive because of the heterogeneous nature and increasing size of today's work. For most work managers, it is necessary to h论文范文e a systematic way to analyze fault beh论文范文ior patterns in order to manage works effectively. In this thesis, we propose an experiment-based knowledge base for work fault reasoning.

   Today, most of work traffics are generated by TCP (UDP) / IP packets. Hence we need to monitor the corresponding work layer and transport layer of the OSI 7-layer reference model. Additionally, by examining the data link and physical layers, we can identify faults that cause some events to go over specified thresholds and to trigger alarms. Thus, we use experiments to build knowledge on the fault beh论文范文ior patterns and causality relation. With this knowledge, one can find root faults by reasoning mechani论文范文s.

   In our research, we use SNMPv1 and Managed Objects in a simplified environment consisting of two routers and four hosts within three work segments. We classify work events into three types: Magnitude-like events, Trigger-like events and String-like events. Magnitude-like events are related to work traffic, such as work interface IN/OUT packets traffic. Trigger-like events occur when specified conditions bee true, such as traps. String-like events are to report work states, such as interface_ is_up or _down. By using RMON to monitor the work segments, it can provide management agents with necessary data. We use ten faults monly found on a LAN, such as Broadcast Storm and High Traffic, in our test environment.

   Faults manifest themselves as aggregated alarms emitting from the work segments affected by those faults. The fault-alarm causality graph is represented by the belief work and the causal strength (likelihood) of a directed link is depicted by the belief value, which is a conditional probability of two connected causal events. These segment-based alarms can be classified in general into two groups by their conditional probabilities with respect to each fault: significant alarms and candidate alarms. When a fault occurs, its significant alarms will definitely appear but the candidate alarms may or may not show up. Consequently, the significant alarm of a fault has a much larger value of conditional probability than that of the candidate alarm. Therefore, we monitor significant alarms in the management process.

   Lastly, we provide a simple specification like the guarded mands in CSP (a(P) for work managers to build facts or rules of fault beh论文范文ioral patterns. Then the corresponding knowledge is used to generate a bipartite causality graph, which can help users better understand the generated information in a systematic manner. As part of ACView, which is an automatic fault reasoning system, we implemented the above functions in the following four modules: Alarm Filter, Data Filter, Threshold Adjustment, and Fault Knowledge Builder.

   In future research, we plan to expand our simplified test environment from a laboratory work to a campus wide work with a close look at the fault beh论文范文ior as well as timing consideration in our analysis of causality relation. To further improve our reasoning capability, we are also investigating the impact of fault propagation.

   第 6 篇

   学 号: M8503143

   论文名称: 以虚拟实境为基础的脊椎运动模拟系统

   英文名称: A Virtual Reality Based Simulation System of Spinal Kinematics

   研 究 生: 何岳谦 Yueh-Chien Ho

   指导教授: 杨东麟 Don-Lin Yang

   校 院: 逢甲大学

   系 所: 资讯工程研究所

   学 位: 硕士

   学 年 度: 87

   语文: 中文

   页数: 73页

   关键字: 虚拟实境 Virtual Reality,Spine Rehabilitation,Kinematics Simulation,[提要]

   现代人花费很多的时间坐在椅子上,如果长时间的坐姿不良,,,,(Traction)来加以治疗,而严重者可能就要进行外科手术来加以矫正并进行复健.在现今电脑图形处理技术的进步驱使下,模拟人体与真实环境的互动便可藉由虚拟实境技术(Virtual Reality Technology)来加以实现,在本论文中我们实作了人体脊椎的运动模拟系统.藉由控制对脊椎所施加的外力,我们可观察各椎骨产生相对角度变化的反应,.,,;Object Hierarchy)的观念来做为整个模拟架构的基础,因此模型中的各种元件可以很容易地被替Reuse),在实作上具有高度的弹性.其中,我们利用了部份生物力学的观念,在虚拟实境软体的辅助下建立了脊椎运动模拟的架构,参数以及环境设定,来模拟人体脊椎每一块椎骨的受力情形,及其产生相对应位移,角度变化等作用,并且包括颈部运动的展示功能.(Biomechanics)的特性可组合成更大的物件,(Event-driven Paradigm),.,of Freedom)拘束下所产生椎骨间角度变化的模拟.在第二种模式中,我们使用分段递减模式来取代上述模式的部份参数,目的除了使不同段的椎骨(如:)具有较一致的特性外并简化参数的调整.第三种模式则利用虚(Virtual Work)等物理学概念,对脊椎受力情形作空间上的分析,并藉由连杆模型(Linkage Model)获得脊椎所产生空间各轴的相对角度变化.最後,我们对此三种模式提出一些模拟上的分析及展示,并探讨可能的改进做法.因为受限於现实环境的资料取得困难,我们无法确实得知脊椎椎骨运动时的真实位置与方向,而以模拟方式来呈现出脊椎的运动模式,并透过医生对此模拟系统的主观看法加以评估.未来,我们希望可以结合更多的仪器设备之助,取得人体脊椎相关量测资料,作为我们实验及分析的客观依据,并将此脊椎运动模拟所用的参数资料及环境设定,提供人体其他部位的关节或机器人的运动模拟,,.

   Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been widely used to develop popular tools for simulating the real life circumstances. For most applications, VR acts as the role of an interaction mechani论文范文 between puters and participants. This thesis looks into the field of kinematics simulation of the spine by means of VR technology, puter graphics, biomechanics, and fundamentals on the spine. First, we survey some character/human animation software and motor control systems. Most of these widgets are deficient in interactions. To h论文范文e a more realistic presentation of spinal movement and interactions, we use an object hierarchy for the whole simulation while constraints on spine are maintained. Our system outlines the general human structures and follows the event-driven paradigm to construct the simulation system, which is implemented by one of the three methods to generate the relative angular variations after applying a force on the spine.

   As VR is proven to be an effective educational tool, experienced doctors can use our system to instruct juniors how a force impact influences spinal movement. Additionally, therapists can also tutor patients in spinal rehabilitation. In our system, we model a spine using 24 vertebrae and 25 joints, and form the linkages in a resting shape. Each vertebra maintains three degrees of freedom (DOFs) and a set of local parameters. These parameters reflect the exterior factors on spinal movement and allow adequate calibration in our virtual world. We also provide some rules and criteria for coarse tuning of parameters. The first two methods of our system are simplified ones in which we make some assumptions of the relative angular variations resulted from applying a force upon the spine. The third method is partially based on physical rules and adopts the "virtual work" concept to calculate the angular variations. In short, we treat the entire vertebrae as a multi-segment linkage and use Statics to solve the problem. By repeatedly exerting a force on a vertebra, we can observe the spinal movement at any viewpoint in a 3-D space. We also show neck-head movement using the experimental data from 3D Motion Analyzer.

   It is not easy to find the optimal parameter settings in our system because some biometrics measurements of the spine are not readily 论文范文ailable. However, we can approximate spinal movement with manual involvement and guidance from doctors. Our system can gradually adapt to other applications by substituting suitable geometric models, processing units and parameters. It can also contribute to the progress of artificial joint design. Our objective is not to mimic the actual spinal movement, but rather to provide a flexible skeletal platform for human movement simulation. In our future research, we will try to bine the muscular system with our skeletal system and use data gathered from bioinstrumentation to verify the quantitative analysis and evaluation.

   第 7 篇

   学号: D82506005

   论文名称: 以统计学为基础的中文口语对话模型及其在电话查号上之应用实例

   Statistics-Based Chinese Spoken Dialogue Modeling with Example Application on Telephone Directory Services

   研究生: 杨燕珠 Yen-Ju Yang

   指导教授: 李琳山 Lin-Shan Lee

   校院: 国立台湾大学

   系所: 资讯工程学研究所

   学位: 博士

   学年度: 87

   语文: 英文

   页数: VII + ix + 116

   关键字: 对话系统 Dialogue System,

   对话模型 Dialogue Modeling,

   语音了解 Speech Understanding,

   语音意向模型化 Speech Intention Modeling,

   片语侦测 Phrase Spotting,

   语言模型 Language Model,

   意义概念 Semantic Concept,

   使用者/系统混和主导对话 User/System Mixed Initiative Dialogue

   [提要]

   随着语音辨认技术逐渐成熟,特定领域语音了解的应用也相当重要,基於国语特定领域语音了解技术的研究仍十分欠缺,乃拟定发展特定领域国语语音了解技术.由於语音了解过程如辅以简易对话(Dialogue)将有助於语音之正确了解,因而发展对话技术也是不可欠缺的.研究的目标是在语者与电脑对话的过程中,语者可以口语式自然语言输入有关该特定领域的任意文句,电脑能明白语者所要表达的意义及其所包含的讯息,进一步作资料库的查询并根据已知资讯回答语者的问题,使对话继续进行.

   本论文提出以统计学为基础的中文口语对话模型及其在电话查号上之应用实例,整合自动关键片语抽取,强健的关键片语侦测,语意处理,语意验证,形成语音意向评估器.其中语意处理是经由片语和意义概念结合之语言模型及意义概念为基础的对话模型;而语意确认则由机率式的有限状态网路来剖析.使用所提出的技术,语者语句中所包含的最可能意义概念路径,也就是他的意向可以被验证出来.此外,所提出的片语典和各种模型的建立都可以从语料中自动抽取或训练而得,故可方便而弹性地转移至其他应用领域.整合使用者/系统混合主导,以目标为趋向的对话管理器,本论文已成功发展以电话查号为服务的对话系统,经过线上使用测试获致颇佳的结果.

   Spoken language understanding involves two primary ponent technologies, speech recognition (SR),

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